Glossary of Terms


A B C D E F     G – M    N –  S     T – Z

A

A1C – 1. A test that measures glucose levels in the blood over a 3 month period of time.
2. The result of the test expressed as a number that indicates the range of glucose levels in the blood.

absorption – [in regard to vitamins or nutrients] The act of the body taking in a substance and accepting it into the body’s system. This does not mean storing or using it. After the body has absorbed the material it may decide to throw it away as waste.

acetic acid – A colorless acid with a strong smell that is mainly what vinegar is made up of. It is used in the making of drugs, dyes and plastics.

acid – One of several liquid substances that react with other substances, often burning or dissolving them

aerobic – Aerobic – 1. involving, needing, or relating to oxygen:

2.denoting exercise that improves or is intended to improve the efficiency of the body’s cardiovascular system in absorbing and transporting oxygen.

alcohol – Alcohol – Alcohol (ethanol or ethyl alcohol) is the ingredient found in beer, wine and spirits that causes intoxication. Alcohol is formed when yeast ferments (breaks down without oxygen) the sugars in different food. Different forms of alcohol are used for different purposes.

alkaline – Considered the opposite of Acid. It neutralizes acid.

It reacts to other chemicals by forcing atoms or molecules into them. A very strong version of this type of chemical can cause skin burns or break things down by forcing certain atoms or molecules into that substance until it is unstable.

aluminum – A metal that can be found in food storage and cooking materials as well as other places in the environment. It can also be found in small amounts in certain food or food prepared in cooking utensils that have aluminum on their outside surface.

Aluminum is toxic to the body and can cause things like: weakened bones, reduced production of vital hormones and has been linked to several memory disorders.

amino acid – Organic materials that are used by the body to make proteins.

amylase – An enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar. It is found in saliva and can also be released by the pancreas.

amylase inhibitor – A substance that stops the enzyme Amylase from breaking down starch into sugar. The starch can’t be digested because of this, so it is thrown away as waste.

anaerobic – Exercise that is done “without air’. It means that the exercise is done with very high intensity so the muscles don’t have enough oxygen to keep up with the effort required of them. This exercise burns up sugar in the muscle tissue and builds muscle mass.

antagonist – [In reference to chemicals or hormones] A substance that counteracts the effect another substance has on the body.

anti-oxidant – A substance that prevents damage to the cells that can be caused by free radicals.

arteriosclerosis – A condition where cholesterol builds up in the arteries and forms plaque that blocks the flow of blood. Also called Atherosclerosis.

arthritis – A condition where a person’s joints become painful, swollen and stiff. It can happen to only one joint or it can happen in all joints of the body depending on the cause of the condition for that person.

There are many ways it can occur but some common ones are: breakdown in the lining of the joints, a deposit of minerals or crystals in the joints or infection of the joint.

ascorbic acid – The chemical form of Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin found in fruits and leafy vegetables. It boosts the immune system, helps to heal wounds, and promotes a healthy heart. It is vital in many functions of the body.

atherome – An abnormal deposit that develops within the walls of arteries that is made out of cholesterol and calcium.

atherosclerosis – See Arteriosclerosis.

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B

banaba leaf – The leaf of a tree that grows in southeast Asia. It has the herbal property of helping push sugar into the cells.

benfotiamine – A version of Thiamine (vitamin B1) that is fat-soluble so it can be stored by the body and used more effectively than regular Thiamine.

B Complex – (B Complex Vitamins) referring to a formulation the most important forms of Vitamin B as a whole which consist of 6 different forms of Vitamin B.

beta-carotene – A form of Vitamin A that is used in many vegetables or fruits to create an orange color.

beta cell – A cell in the pancreas that makes Insulin.

bile – A yellow liquid produced by the liver that helps to digest fat.

bio-availability – The rate that nutrients or material is recognized, absorbed and used by the body.

bioflavonoid – Nutrients found in plants that provide anti-oxidant effects, assist other vitamins in their functions, as well as a number of other minor positive effects.

biologically active – Having an effect on the chemical activity of living cells.

Biotin – (vitamin B7) A vitamin found in Egg yolk, barley, liver, and yeast that is used in cell growth, the production of essential fatty acids and in the use of fats for energy.

blood clotting – The formation of thick mass from the material of the blood for the purpose of closing a wound to stop the wound bleeding.

blood glucose level – See Blood Sugar.

blood serum – The liquid part of the blood. It is what the blood cells float throughout the body in. It makes up about 55% of what blood is made of.


blood sugar— (Blood Sugar Level, Blood Glucose Levels, Plasma Glucose) The amount of sugar in the form of glucose in the blood.

blood vessel – Intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body.

Body mass index – (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to adult men and women.

bonded – The condition of two atoms or molecules being connected together by chemical forces.

boron – A mineral found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, beer and wine. It is needed by the body to build and maintain healthy bones. It is also a vital part of maintaining the cell walls and keeping them healthy and strong.

brewer’s yeast – The yeast that is used in brewing beer, also used as a dietary source of vitamins, especially Vitamin B.

bronchitis – Inflammation of the throat especially the tubes that lead into the lungs. It is usually caused by infection.

B Vitamins.- Referring to several water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in different functions of the body. They each have an assigned number and have similar purposes in the body but are different in structure.

B vitamins can have the following positive health effects: healthy skin and muscle tone, immune system improvement, better nerve function. A lack of B vitamins can cause nerve damage or Neuropathy as well as other physical problems.

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C

calcification —1. Calcification is a process in which calcium builds up in body tissue, causing the tissue to harden. This can be a normal or abnormal process.

2. The process of the body adding to tissue in the body to make them it harder or stronger. This is good when it happens to teeth or bones, but is bad when it happens to tissue that is supposed to be soft like blood vessels.

calcium – a mineral that is essential for the normal growth and maintenance of bones and teeth. It is required in over 200 different chemical processes in the body.

calcium ascorbate – A chemical form of Vitamin C.

calcium carbonate – A form of calcium found in most vitamin supplements. It is usually taken from ground up oyster shells, chalk or other inorganic sources. The body usually doesn’t recognize it and throws most of it away, only absorbing a small portion of this form of calcium.

calorie – [Regarding food] A unit of energy that is used as a measurement for the amount of energy which food provides. It is NOT an actual substance contained in food, but a measurement of how much energy food provides when digested.

1 calorie is enough energy to increase the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius. This is about the same as taking a medium sized pot full of water and putting it on the stove at the highest flame for 30 seconds.

capillary – A small blood vessel in the body about the thickness of a human hair.

carbohydrate – (carb) Long chains of sugar molecules connected together.

There are many kinds of Carbohydrates that come from many types of foods. There are carbohydrates that come from grains and bread. They also come in the form of starch such as potatoes. This also includes the sugar at your dinner table. Pasta in any form contains carbohydrates.

The common denominator of all these different kinds of Carbohydrates is that when you eat them they turn into simple sugar in the body.

carcinogen – A substance that can increase the likelihood of developing cancer.

carpal tunnel syndrome – Pain and weakness in the hand caused by the muscles in the wrist getting inflamed and squeezing the blood vessels and nerves that pass through the wrist.

cell – The smallest basic living unit of a body. It reproduces by splitting to make copies of itself.

cell membrane – (Cell wall) The thin layer of tissue that forms the outer surface of the cell and regulates the passage of materials in and out of the cell.

cell receptors – Small portals on the outside of every cell that act as communication terminals. Different substances that are made in the body fit into them and tell the cell to do something. Insulin fits into certain cell receptors that then tell the cell to take in glucose from the blood.

chemotherapy – A way of handling cancer in the body that is often used by doctors. It involves injecting harmful chemicals into the body with the idea that the chemical is more harmful to cancer cells than to healthy cells.

chlorpropamide – (Sold under the brand name diabinese) – One of a class of drugs (sulfonylureas) that are given by doctors that force the pancreas to create more insulin than it would naturally be able to create.

cholesterol – A fatty substance that is found in the body tissue and blood of all animals. It is used by the cells for energy.

choline – A nutrient found in egg yolks, beans, liver and certain vegetables. By itself choline does not do anything for the body, but it is needed by many other nutrients in the body in order to do their job. It is necessary for proper nerve function, and the strength of cell walls.

chromium – The name of a nutrient found in foods like: grains, potatoes, oysters,. liver, seafood, cheese and others. The best food source of this nutrient is Brewer’s yeast.

This nutrients is a necessary part of the process of Insulin causing sugar to be forced into a cell. When this occurs the chromium is used up and must be replaced by the diet.

chromium yeast – Brewer’s yeast, or yeast that is specifically grown to contain more chromium than usual.

clot – 1. To form a thick mass out of something such as blood.

2. A thick mass that is made from this process like when blood is exposed to air and becomes thicker.

coagulate – (of a fluid, especially blood) change to a solid or semisolid state.

Cobalamine – (Vitamin B12) – A water-soluble vitamin found in organ meats like the liver, kidney or heart, and oysters. It is also found in small amounts in other seafood and egg yolks.

This vitamin plays a vital role in the formation of the lining around the nerves. It is also needed for the proper function of nerve cells and the formation of blood. This vitamin is needed for the creation of new cells in the body. It additionally promotes the growth of nerve cells and regeneration of damaged nerve cells.

co-factor – A substance that doesn’t do anything by itself but is used by the body to help other vital nutrients to do their job.

complex sugar – A sugar that is made up of 2 or more simple sugars. A complex sugar is usually broken down into smaller sugars when digested.

coronary heart disease – A disease where so much plaque has built up in the arteries that it is blocking blood flow to the heart. It usually leads to heart attack and is considered the #1 cause of death in the U.S.

corosolic acid – The active ingredient in Banaba leaf that helps the body push sugar into the cells. It acts like insulin in the body.

Crestor – (Brand name for rosuvastatin) – belongs to a group of drugs called HMG CoA reductase inhibitors, or “statins.” Rosuvastatin is used together with diet to lower blood levels of “bad” cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein, or LDL), to increase levels of “good” cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein, or HDL), and to lower triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood). It does this by stopping the body’s ability to create cholesterol.

cyanocobalamine – The most common form of Vitamin B12 that can be found in supplement that you get from most stores. Very little of this type of Vitamin B12 is absorbed by the body.

Cymbalta – (brand name for duloxetine) – affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced in people with depression.

Cymbalta is used to treat major depressive disorder in adults. It is also used to treat general anxiety disorder in adults and children who are at least 7 years old.

Cymbalta is also used in adults to treat nerve pain caused by diabetes (diabetic neuropathy), or chronic muscle or joint pain (such as low back pain and osteoarthritis pain).

Cymbalta is also used to treat fibromyalgia (a chronic pain disorder) in adults and children at least 13 years old.

Some of the side effects include Somnolence), headache, dizziness, facial hypoesthesia, hypoesthesia, lethargy, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo

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D

dawn phenomenon – It is something that happens to some diabetics where just before they wake up the liver starts producing a lot of sugar. The Diabetic wakes up and takes their “fasting” sugar level and sees that it’s really high, when really it has been normal or at least much lower all night.

denatured – [In reference to food] Cause to have no nutritional value or to be bad for you.

degenerative disease – A disease where the tissue of the body becomes less and less healthy or slowly dies. It can have many different causes and can effect small portions of the body or large portions.

diabeta – Brand name for Glyburide,  One of a class of drugs (sulfonylureas) that are given by doctors that force the pancreas to create more insulin than it would naturally be able to create.

diabetes – Diabetes is a set of related diseases in which the body cannot regulate the amount of sugar in the blood.

In a healthy person, the blood glucose level is regulated by several hormones, one of which is insulin. Insulin is produced by the pancreas, a small organ near the stomach.

People with diabetes either do not produce enough insulin (type I diabetes) or cannot use insulin properly (type 2 diabetes), or both.

In diabetes, glucose in the blood cannot move into cells, and it stays in the blood. This not only harms the cells that need the glucose for fuel, but also harms certain organs and tissues exposed to the high glucose levels.

diabetic keto acidosis – A condition where the body of a diabetic person begins using muscle tissue and other vital tissue in the body for energy because the body can’t get the blood sugar into the cells.

diabinese – Brand name for Chlorpropamide.

digestive tract – The passage going all the way from the mouth to the anus, including the organs through which food passes for digestion and elimination as waste.

Drug – 1. Any substance that is taken or administered to cause physiological changes, especially one prescribed by a doctor to treat or prevent a medical condition. Drugs that affect the central nervous system are often addictive.

2. It is a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or to otherwise affect physical or mental well-being.

dyslipidemia – A disruption in the amount of fats in the blood. It can either be too high or too low.

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E

enzyme – A number of chemical substances that are produced by living cells. They cause specific chemical reactions to happen in the body while not being changed themselves.

essential fatty acids – Nutrients that cannot be produced in the body but must be taken in from the diet. They are basic building blocks that are necessary for the forming of different hormones, and play an important role in the development of brain and nerve tissue.

extract – A substance taken from a plant, flower, etc. and used especially in food or medicine.

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F

familial hyperlipidemia – Very high cholesterol levels that are considered to run in the family, from one generation to the next.

fasting blood sugar levels – (Fasting levels, Fasting Blood sugar) Blood sugar levels measured after waking but before eating.

fat – 1. A nutritional part of food. It is a substance that dissolves in water, is solid at room temperature and belongs to a group of chemicals that are main parts of food. They come from places like: animal tissue, nuts, and seeds. It supplies more than twice the energy to the body than carbohydrates do.

2. The substance under the skin of humans and animals that stores energy and keeps them warm.

fat burning mechanism – The action that is performed in the body of taking stored fat and processing it to create energy and then throwing away any waste products of this process.

fat-soluble – [In reference to vitamins] These are vitamins that are stored in body fat for use by the body when needed.

fiber – A substance in foods such as fruit, vegetables and brown bread that travels through the body as waste and helps the contents of the bowels to pass through the body easily.

fibromyalgia – Chronic pain in the muscles and joints, and chronic tiredness. The cause of this disease is not currently known by doctors.

folic acid – (Vitamin B9) A water-soluble vitamin found in brewer’s yeast, liver, green leafy vegetables and roots. This vitamin is vital in the creation of new cells in the body. It is needed for the cell to make copies of genetic material.

free radical – A molecule that reacts very easily with other molecules. Because they react so easily with other molecules they can cause damage to the body by breaking down important structures of the cells.

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